Note:  Descriptions derived from Life-Span Human Development by Carol K. Sigelman and David R. Shaffer.

» General WWW links
These links can be used to obtain general information or information about specific theories.  This is probably a good starting point for your research effort.
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» Darwin's Theory of Evolution
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) believed that young, untrained infants share many characteristics with their nonhuman ancestors and that observing child development might provide insights into the evolutionary history of the human species.
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» Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) challenged prevailing notions of human nature and human development by proposing that we are driven by motives and emotions on which we are largely unaware and that we are shaped by our earliest experiences in life.
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» Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development
Erik Erikson (1902- ) revised Freud's theory by placing more emphasis on social influences, developing stares with a broader focus, emphasizing the ego, expressing a more positive view of human nature, and applying the theory across the entire life span.
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» Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) viewed intelligence as a process that helps an organism adapt to its environment and proposed four major periods of cognitive development.
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» Behaviorism
John B. Watson believed that conclusions about human development and functioning should be based on observations of overt behavior rather than on speculations about unconscious motives or cognitive processes that remain unobservable.
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» Skinner's Operant Conditioning Theory
B. F. Skinner belived that the essence of human development is the continual acquitsition of new habits of behavior and that these learned behaviors are controlled by external stimuli (reinforcers and punishers).
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» Bandura's Social Cognitive  Theory
Albert Bandura claimed that humans are cognitive beings whose active processing of information from the environment plays a major role in learning and human develpment.
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» Vygotsky's Cognitive Theory
Lev Vygotsky insisted that children's minds are shaped by the particular social and historical context in which they live and by their interactions with adults.
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» Information Processing Theory
The information proccessing approach to humban development emphasizes the fundamental mental processes involved in attention, perception, memory, and decision making by using a computer analogy.
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» Biobehavioral Theories
These theories look to investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental differences among people or animals are responsible for differences in their traits.
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» Bowlby's Attachment Theory
John Bowlby believed that many invant behaviors that promote emotional attachments have evolved because they make it more likely that the invant will be cared for by adults and will therefore survive.
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» Cross-Cultural Theories
This perspective looks to find the typical rather than the unique and look for the underlying similarities among cultures in order to define universal occurrences.
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» Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory of Development
Urie Bronfenbrenner emphasized that the developing person is embedded in a series of environmental systems that interact with one another and with the individual to influence development.
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» Contextual Theories
These perspectives hold that development arises from the ongoing interrelationships between the changing organism and a
changing world.  Changes in the person produce changes in his or her environment, changes in the environment produce changes in the person, and this interchange goes on continuously.
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» Risk and Resiliency Theories
These theories investigate the survival of individuals (resiliency) that are faced with adversity (risk).
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